In short about city Pula Croatia

Although there is archaeological evidence of human activity in this region from prehistoric times, we have decided not to write about that far in human history, but we will follow the development of the city from ancient times to here. Pula (in Croatia) is a very old, ancient city that developed back in the time of the ancient Greeks who sailed this area, and even before them, sometime in the 10th century BC, the tribes of Illyra and Histra by which the peninsula of Istria got its name resided.

As early as 177 BC, there are records of Roman activities in this area and the conquest of the area where the city of Pula is today. in 45th year BC, the city was a Roman colony and administrative center in Istria. Today, Pula is still the largest city of the Istrian peninsula, as well as the commercial, transport and administrative center of Istria.

History of Pula – Croatia

As we pointed out earlier in the description that we will trace history from ancient times to here, we move in sequence.

The first known inhabitants who organized their stay in this region were the Illyrians. Thanks to their excellent knowledge of the sea and navigation, they skillfully ruled and resided in the Adriatic. Ilirs were a group of related peoples who inhabited the western and inland parts of the Balkans from prehistoric times. Among the Illyrian tribes in the present-day territory of Croatia, the Histri, Liburni, Japods, Delmatians and Ardians are prominent. It was in the area of ​​Pula and the Istrian peninsula that the Histri ruled. They were invaded in the second century BC by the Romans, who violently conquered the area and imposed their rules, construction style and lifestyle.

At the time of the colonization of Pula, around the age of 45, Pula developed strongly into an important maritime port and administrative center of the Roman era. Because of this, it enjoyed excellent status within the empire and had a population of about 30,000, which was incredible at the time. At the same time, there was political turmoil and civil war within the Roman Empire between the triumphs of Octavian, Lepidos, and Antonius on the one hand, and Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius on the other. Pula then chose the side and stood by Cassie’s side mostly because Cassie’s brother, Cassie Longin, founded the city.

Because of this, after Octavian’s victory, around 31 BC, the city was destroyed and devastated.

However, the city was soon rebuilt at the request of Octavian’s daughter Julia, and was named Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea. Large classical buildings have been erected, several of which have survived to this day. The Romans also built a water supply and sewer system in the city. They fortified the city with a ten-door rampart, some of which are still preserved: the Arch of the Sergius, the Hercules Gate (which contains the names of the founders of the city) and the Double Gate.

City of Pula in Croatia

City Pula in Croatia

Pula is one fantastic city that exudes culture, history, landmarks and other amenities that are needed today. This city is the perfect blend of a former, ancient lifestyle that perfectly fits into our modern world. When you first come into contact with Pula, this is what you are about to feel.

Middle Ages

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire that existed from the founding of the Republic until its fall in 476, the Ostrogoths assumed power, but only briefly, for some sixty years. Subsequently, the Ravenna Exarchate (540-751) took over power. During this period, Pula developed and became the main port of the Byzantine Navy. The cathedral and church of st. Maria Formosa dates from this period. The Exarchate of Raven was a kind of center of Venetian power in Italy from the end of the 6th century until 751, when the last Exarch (Byzantine governor) was killed by the imperial enemies in Italy, the Lombards. But they also did not rule for a long time, because in the 7th century Croats came to these areas, who, despite various conquerors, have successfully remained in these areas to this day. Let’s look further at how this went.

From 788 onwards Pula was ruled by the Frankish kingdom under Charlemagne. Pula became the seat of the Electoral Counts of Istria until 1077. The Venetians took over the city in 1148, and in 1150. Pula swore allegiance to the Venetian Republic, thus becoming a Venetian estate. Centuries later, the fortunes of the city remained closely linked to the Venetian force. In 1192 it was conquered by the Pijans, but was soon returned by the Venetians to their rule. For a brief period, power shifted from the hands of the Venetians to the hands of Genoa and vice versa but the Venetians finally occupied Pula in the 13th century and maintained it until the dissolution of their Republic of Venice and Napoleon’s conquests in 1797.

The defeat of Venice by the French, more precisely Napoleon’s army, was best used by the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, which subsequently occupied Pula and held it for a short period. Already in 1805, the authorities had to surrender power to the French after the military defeat. However, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy regained possession of Dalmatia, Istria and Pula as early as 1813, peacefully. During this period, Pula regained prosperity. From 1859 Pula’s huge natural harbor became the main and most fortified Austrian port of war and the main center of shipbuilding. The city has transformed from a small town with a faded antique glow to an industrial city. The island of Losinj (Lussino) located south of Pula has become the summer residence of the Austrian Habsburg Imperial Family. In 1900, the first car was driven through the streets of Pula, and in 1901, the first electric car.

Pula and two World wars

From the very beginning of World War I, Pula was the focus of the Italian Army as one of its primary strategic goals. The Italian Navy was constantly trying to lure the Austro-Hungarian fleet into open battle in the open sea. The Austrian command, however, thwarted the Italian plan and successfully avoided leaving the port of Pula. Despite the harbor being heavily defended with innumerable naval barricades, the Italians did not give up in their attempts to seize it. However, they never made it because the port was simply unconquerable. When it became clear at the end of the war that the Austrian side would be defeated, King Charles I decided to hand over the fleet of Austrian Navy stationed in Pula to the hands of a neutral, newly formed state of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, whom he believed would later accede to a new federation of states that would he reign. That never happened.

Then came World War II. Pula was then again under Italian siege, which was then the strongest fleet in the Mediterranean. The Italians vehemently persecuted all other peoples and nationalities who lived in Pula until their capitulation in 1943. After the act, the Italian forces withdrew from Pula but were soon replaced by Germans, who were even more brutal. During the German administration, Pula experienced the worst period ever: arrests, deportations and executions of people suspected of aiding partisan struggle.

Also, Allied strategic bombing has repeatedly destroyed entire parts of the city. It was not until the end of the war after the Partisan liberation of this territory that Pula welcomed peace and freedom. Pula was liberated on May 5, 1945. and that day is celebrated today as the day of the city of Pula. After the War, tensions continued to persist over Pula, which the Italians persistently seized. This conflict, however, was resolved in 1953 when Marshal Tito sent a Yugoslav army to the Istrian Peninsula and threatened the Italians with military intervention in the event of any attempt to occupy Istria and Pula. to this day remains an integral part of the Croatian state.

Economy and tourism

Throughout its history, Pula has always based its economy on shipbuilding and transport. Even today, Pula is a significant port in maritime transport. It is also important as a transport and cultural center of Istria. More recently, tourism has been growing strongly year by year throughout Istria. Shipbuilding has remained an important branch of industry to this day, so Pula has over 3 large shipyards for the construction of overseas ships. Regarding tourism in the city of Pula and other attractions, we should definitely mention the following: the famous Roman arena (amphitheater) in Pula, the Pula Arch, the Augustus Temple, the Municipal Palace and the Pula Film Festival are certainly the most visited city attractions.

The Arena of Pula, an amphitheater, is the name for a special type of Roman public edifice in which gladiator games were held, within which Roman citizens organized and fulfilled their leisure (otium). The spectacle buildings were very functional and their architectural features are reflected in all aspects of modern sports arenas. In particular, this arena in Pula is one of the best preserved Roman arenas in general and is the third largest in the world. Other notable roman arenas in the world are located in Rome, the Roman Colosseum, and amphitheatres in Verona and Pompeii (Italy), the Arena in Pula (Croatia), and the amphitheaters in El Gem (Tunisia), and Nimes and Arles (France).

The Arch or Triumphal arch is a peculiar architectural form invented by the Romans. Initially, they were erected in honor of military victories and triumphant greetings (so that the warlord could ride through the triumphal arch into the city). Most often they have one or three vaulted aisles, decorated with columns or poles standing on a high base. They are decorated with numerous reliefs that are the essence of the arch. Certainly the most famous arch in the world is the one near the Colosseum in Rome and is called Constantine’s Arc. Other world famous arches are located in France in Nimes; in Algeria in Timgad; in Croatia in Pula, etc.

The Temple of Augustus is a well preserved Roman temple in the center of Pula in the central Forum Square. The temple dedicated to the first Roman emperor Augustus was built during the emperor’s life between 2 BC. and his death in the 14th year of a new era. It is located on a podium with a tetrastilite porch with Corinthian columns. It is built in the demanding technique of the opus isodomum. The temple measures 8 m by 17.3 m. The richly decorated frieze resembles that of the larger and older Maison Carrée Temple in Nîmes, France. The inscription of the consecration of the temple originally consisted of bronze letters affixed to the portico. Today, only the retaining holes remain, and most of the inscriptions have been damaged over time. However, the inscription consisted of a standard consecration, which was also found on other temples of Augustus, which read:

ROMAE • ET • AUGUSTO • CAESARI • DIVI • F • PATRI • PATRIAE (Roma and Augustus Caesar, Divine Son, Father of Homeland).

The Municipal or Communal palace in Pula is the seat of the city council of Pula. It is located on the old Roman Forum on the east side of the Temple of Augustus, where Diana’s temple was previously located. The continuity of city life at the Forum in the period after the fall of the Roman state is confirmed by the fate of Diana’s Temple, which very early served to accommodate municipal institutions from the 9th century onwards. The Communal palace, which contains the entire history of Pula, seen in architectural stratigraphy from antiquity, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque to the present, is a continuous municipal seat, which points to the special significance and influence of antiquity on Pula’s heritage.

The Pula Film Festival is also one of the city’s many attractions. When it was founded in 1954, it was simply called the Film Festival and in 1958 it began to be called the Yugoslav Film Festival, and soon became the most important national film festival in the SFR Yugoslavia. Since 1961 it has been officially named the Festival of Yugoslav Feature Films in Pula. Over the following decades, the festival gained significant international recognition along with the Yugoslav film industry, which continued to thrive since the 1960s. Many film production companies were soon established throughout the former Yugoslavia, so the industry created about 20 new feature films for national distribution each year.

These films competed for numerous awards at the festival as the award categories and the concept of the festival were modeled on the Academy’s awards. Also throughout the years, many international stars such as Orson Welles, Sophia Loren, Sam Peckinpah, Richard Burton, Elizabeth Taylor, Yul Brynner, John Malkovich, Ralph Fiennes, Ben Kingsley, Jeremy Irons, director Phillip Noyce and Jiří Menzel have visited this festival. producers like Branko Lustig.

Pula is one fantastic city that exudes culture, history, landmarks and other amenities that are needed today. This city is the perfect blend of a former, ancient lifestyle that perfectly fits into our modern world. When you first come into contact with Pula, this is what you are about to feel.


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