Despite numerous archeological findings dating back to the Bronze and Iron Age, it is considered that Rovinj was built in the period between III.rd and the V.th century. The first mention of Rovinj (Castrum Rubini) is found in the records of the Anonymous called “Cosmographia”. The first known inhabitants of this area were Histri, after which the whole peninsula of Istria was named. They were known for their good relations and trade with the surrounding peoples. Primarily with the Greeks and Etruscans. During Roman rule, the Histrians enjoyed peace and security and made great progress in the fields of commerce and culture.
Subsequent invasions of the Huns, Visigoths, Goths and Byzantines changed much. After Byzantine rule, Rovinj was first under the rule of Longobard and then under Frankish rule. Despite its stone fortifications, it was devastated and burned several times, like other cities in Istria. In Istria in the X. and XI.st. Rovinj was ruled by powerful German feudal families who favorably viewed the political and economic strengthening of Venice. In 1188, Rovinj concludes a contract with Renovatio Pacis with Dubrovnik, which obliges both parties to trade and exchange goods. In 1283, Rovinj joined Venice, or the Venetian Republic, which ruled Rovinj for a long time.
The Middle Ages brought another problems such as the great plague. Rovinj, however, is partly spared due to its favorable climate. Thereafter, the invaders, invading the Venetian possessions, invaded the city on two occasions (1579 and 1599), ravaging it and setting it on fire. Before the Turkish invasion, the coastal parts of Istria are populated by refugees from central Istria, Bosnia, Dalmatia and even Greece and Albania, and the population in Rovinj is increasing rapidly. And there were settlements from northern Italy as well. The town of 1595 has 2800 inhabitants, 1650 about 5000, 1741. 7966 and 1775 as many as 13788.
Hence the typical construction of the old town center: houses rise in height, compacted to one another, leaning against the city walls. Each room, which has its own chimney, has one family. At the time of the conflict with the Turks, Venice helped build fortifications and fortifications were established in the city: 1563.g. Porton del Ponte, 1590 restored and consolidated Portizza (Sotto muro or Under the wall). In 1650, with the decline of the Uskok attacks, the city expanded to the area beyond the walls on the island itself, but also opposite it, on land, along the slope on which the Franciscan monastery is located. The canal and the small bridge became obstacles in communication with the hinterland, so the canal was 1763. flooded and Rovinj became a city on the peninsula.
In XVII. and XVIII. century Rovinj developed a strong shipbuilding industry which made it an important seaport with a huge fishing and merchant fleet. At this time, Rovinj was ruled by Venice until its collapse by Napoleon. In 1797, the Venetian Republic ceased to exist, and Rovinj came under the rule of Austria and France, which changed in power but only briefly.
Under Austro-Hungarian rule, Rovinj developed strongly in cultural, maritime and industrial terms. At that time, Rovinj received public lighting, a city telephone, a pier, an extension of a city port, an industrial chamber, a tobacco factory, many schools, a wax factory, glass factory, sardine factory, cement factory, as well as a hospital, and a marine biology institute and railway connection with other cities of the empire.
With the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Rovinj came under Italian rule, which lasted until the capitulation of Italy in September 1943, and until the end of II. world war, was under German occupation. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1947 it was annexed, along with other Istrian cities and Kvarner islands, to Croatia within the state of Yugoslavia. In 1990, the struggle for independence and separation from socialist Yugoslavia began. 1991 Rovinj, like the rest of Croatia, separates from Yugoslavia and becomes part of the independent Republic of Croatia. That’s the way it is today. Today’s Rovinj is a strong commercial, industrial and tourist center in Croatia.
Rovinj is located on the western coast of Istrian peninsula. It is part of Central Europe as the rest of Croatia. The climate is mild Mediterranean with average annual temperatures of 16 degrees Celsius. The winter average temperature is about 5 * C while the summer average is 23 * C.
St. Euphemia is a very important part of the history and culture of Rovinj. Ever since her body arrived in the marble sarcophagus in the port of Rovinj in the 800’s, Rovinj has accepted it as part of the city. So it is today. The church of St. Euphemia dominates the old part of the city and is an indispensable view of the city. The church itself was built from 1728 to 1736 according to the designs of Venetian architect Giovanni Dozzi, while its bell tower was modeled on that of St. Mark’s Church in Venice.
Countless pilgrims, for centuries, pilgrims from all over Istria poured in, especially on the Saint’s day (September 16), into her church, in front of a sarcophagus where the body of the holy virgin is kept. Also the old town is surrounded by city walls that are beautoful to see, the Native museum or Franciscan monastery are something you should visit. Also Dvigrad, ancient Roman cistern and St. Toma’s church are near Rovinj, so if it is possible, you should visit some of these monuments.
Since Rovinj in Istria is one of the most beautiful cities in Croatia, it is not surprising that it is also a tourist magnet for many visitors. Rovinj is known as a city you can easily fall in love with and return to many times later. Its geographical position as well as its beauty and its mild climate are the reason for its high attendance throughout the year. Numerous high-class hotels as well as beautiful restaurants with well-known Istrian specialties such as Istrian fuzi and white or black truffle dishes and famous Istrian wines are a real magnet for visitors. The pleasant stay of this quiet place surrounded by the sea was appreciated even in the old days when members of imperial families spent their vacations here. Rovinj has always been and will remain one of the gems of Croatian tourism.
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